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Patricia Conrad
Associate Professor
Department of Genetics
School of Medicine
Case Western Reserve University
Biomedical Research Building 720
2109 Adelbert Road
Cleveland, Ohio 44106-4955
Tel: (216) 368-0199
Fax: (216) 368-3432

About Patricia Conrad

Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio B.S 1974 Biology
University of Maryland, College Park, MD B.S. 1979 Horticulture
University of Maryland, College Park, MD M.S. 1981 Botany
University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA Ph.D 1987 Botany
Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA Post-doc 1987-1991 Imaging
University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas Instructor 1991-1996 Imaging

Academic Appointments:
1996-2000 Director of Imaging Facility & Assistant Professor, Biology, Bucknell University
2001-2002 Research Assistant Professor, Biology, University of Virginia
2001-present Director of Imaging Facility, Instructor, Genetics, Case Western Reserve University


The Department of Genetics Imaging Facility is located on the 7th floor of the Biomedical Research Building. Equipment available in our department include ( for complete listing of equipment, training, fees, and contact):

  • a Leica TCS SP2 AOBS filter-free UV/spectral confocal laser scanner on an inverted DM IRE2 microscope equipped with the following lasers: 405 nm, Argon (458, 476, 488, 496, 514 nm), green HeNe (543 nm), orange HeNe (594 nm), and red HeNe (633nm). It also has an environmental chamber for live cell imaging similar to that on the ASMDW (below). Objectives include 10x, 20x, 40x, 63x.

  • a Leica ASMDW dedicated workstation for multidimensional live cell imaging consisting of a Leica IRE2 inverted microscope equipped with an environmental chamber for the control of temperature, CO2 concentration, and humidity to guarantee ideal conditions for live cell imaging; fluorescence and DIC optics; 10x, 20x, 40x, 63x and 100x objectives, a Photometrics CoolSnap HQ CCD camera, and filters for DAPI, FITC, RITC, PI, CY3, GFP, CFP, RFP. It has deconvolution capabilities.

  • a completely motorized Leica DM6000 upright microscope for automated transmitted light (brightfield, darkfield, polarization, and DIC) and fluorescence (filter sets include UV, Blue, Green, Red, G/R, BGR, CFP, YFP, CFP/YFP, and CY5). Lenses include 1.25x, 5x, 10x, 20x, 40x, 63x and 100x. Images are acquired with a Q-Imaging Retiga Xi firewire high speed, 12-bit cooled camera with an IR blocking filter. Operated with Improvision's Volocity software.

  • a Leica DMI6000 inverted microscope that is motorized for automated transmitted light (brightfield and phase contrast) and fluorescence (filter sets include UV, Blue, Green, Red, G/R, BGR, CFP, YFP, CFP/YFP, and CY5). The lenses on the motorized turret include 10x (phase), 20x (phase), 40x (phase), and 63x. Images are acquired with a Hamamatsu Orca-ER digital camera. Operated with Improvisionís Volocity software.

  • a Leica DMLB upright microscope equipped with a SPOT RT slider color digital camera; 5x, 10x, 20x, 40x and 63x objectives; and filters for Blue, Green, Red, and CY5. Primarily used for 3-color imaging of fixed fluorescent or histologic samples. Also equipped for brightfield, phase, and darkfield.

  • a Leica DMIRB inverted microscope equipped with a SPOT RT slider color digital camera, brightfield, Hoffman modulation contrast, and fluorescence optics; 5x, 10x, 20x, and 40x objectives. Fluorescence filters are for Blue, Green, Red, and CY5.

  • a Leica MZFLIII fluorescence stereomicroscope equipped with a SPOT RT slider color digital camera and filters for GFP, dsRed, YFP and CFP.

  • two Quips Genetic Workstations, each consisting of a Zeiss Axioplan or Axiophot upright microscope with Photometrics Sensys CCD camera; 20x, 40x, 63x, and 100x objectives; LUDL filter wheel and filters for DAPI, FITC, GFP, RITC, TR, CY3, CY5. Operated with Quips PathVysion Smart Capture software. Primarily used for immunofluorescence of fixed samples.

Selected Publications

Fernando CA, Conrad PA, Bartels CF, Marques T, To M, Balow SA, Nakamura Y, Warman ML (2010)
Temporal and spatial expression of CCN genes in zebrafish.
Dev Dyn;239(6):1755-67
See PubMed abstract

Blair A, Shaul PW, Yuhanna IS, Conrad PA, Smart EJ. (1999)
Oxidized low density lipoprotein displaces endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) from plasmalemmal caveolae and impairs eNOS activation.
J Biol Chem.;274(45):32512-9.
See PubMed abstract

Fullerton AT, Bau MY, Conrad PA, Bloom GS (1998)
In vitro reconstitution of microtubule plus end-directed, GTPgammaS-sensitive motility of Golgi membranes.
Mol Biol Cell;9(10):2699-714
See PubMed abstract

Conrad PA, Smart EJ, Ying YS, Anderson RG, Bloom GS. (1995)
Caveolin cycles between plasma membrane caveolae and the Golgi complex by microtubule-dependent and microtubule-independent steps.
J Cell Biol.;131(6 Pt 1):1421-33.
See PubMed abstract

Lippincott-Schwartz J, Cole NB, Marotta A, Conrad PA, Bloom GS. (1995)
Kinesin is the motor for microtubule-mediated Golgi-to-ER membrane traffic.
J Cell Biol.;128(3):293-306.
See PubMed abstract

Smart EJ, Ying YS, Conrad PA, Anderson RG (1994)
Caveolin moves from caveolae to the Golgi apparatus in response to cholesterol oxidation.
J Cell Biol.;127(5):1185-97.
See PubMed abstract

Hahn KM, Conrad PA, Chao JC, Taylor DL, Waggoner AS (1993)
A photocross-linking fluorescent indicator of mitochondrial membrane potential.
J Histochem Cytochem;41(4):631-4
See PubMed abstract

Conrad PA, Giuliano KA, Fisher G, Collins K, Matsudaira PT, Taylor DL. (1993)
Relative distribution of actin, myosin I, and myosin II during the wound healing response of fibroblasts.
J Cell Biol.;120(6):1381-91.
See PubMed abstract

Waggoner A, DeBiasio R, Conrad P, Bright GR, Ernst L, Ryan K, Nederlof M, Taylor D (1989)
Multiple spectral parameter imaging.
Methods Cell Biol;30:449-78
See PubMed abstract

Conrad PA, Nederlof MA, Herman IM, Taylor DL (1989)
Correlated distribution of actin, myosin, and microtubules at the leading edge of migrating Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts
Cell Motil Cytoskeleton;14(4):527-43
See PubMed abstract

Conrad PA, Hepler PK (1988)
The effect of 1,4-dihydropyridines on the initiation and development of gametophore buds in the moss funaria.
Plant Physiol;86(3):684-7
See PubMed abstract

Fisher GW, Conrad PA, DeBiasio RL, Taylor DL (1988)
Centripetal transport of cytoplasm, actin, and the cell surface in lamellipodia of fibroblasts.
Cell Motil Cytoskeleton;11(4):235-47
See PubMed abstract

Conrad, PA, Steucek, GL, Hepler, PK (1986)
Bud Formation in Funaria: Organelle Redistribution Following Cytokinin Treatment
Protoplasma;131: 211-223

Conrad, PA., Binari, L.L.W., Racusen, RH (1982)
Rapidly Secreting Cultured Oat Cells Serve as a Model System for the Study of Cellular Exocytosis
Protoplasma ;112: 196-204